- Round Robin Testing and Analysis of Lead Free Solder Pastes with
Alloys of Tin, Silver and Copper
Do you want to know which lead free solder is recommended for our industry? Over the past three years, The IPC Solder Products Value Council (SPVC) invested the equivalent of one million dollars in volunteer time, equipment and supplies to come up with the answer. The SPVC analyzed three key lead free alloys: 96.5/3.0/0.5 tin/silver/copper; 95.5/3.8/0.7 tin/silver/copper; and 95.5/4.0/0.5 tin/silver/copper and the end result of the research is found in this report.
The report is a 50 page analysis and recommendation of a lead free alloy. It also includes 18 appendices with nearly 60 megabytes of data and research charts. Some appendices are formatted in Excel to ease further analysis and data manipulation. The testing in the report and appendices includes DSC melt analysis; wetting balance; area of spread; visual inspection of solder joints; X-ray analysis of solder joint voids; temperature cycling testing; thermal shock testing and metallurgical cross section. This data supports the Council's recommendation of 96.5/3.0/0.5 tin/silver/copper (SAC305) as the alloy of choice for lead free applications.
The testing program was not intended to compare the lead free alloys' performance against tin lead. However, because tin lead was used as a control, the study does provide some comparisons between the tin lead and lead free alloy performance.
Report chapters cover:
Assembly Performance Comparison
Solder Paste Down Selection
Results of Assembly of Test PCBs
Metallographic Analysis and Baseline Characterization of Flextronics Assemblies
Metallographic Analysis and Baseline Characterization of Solectron Assemblies
April 2005 - The successor to IPC-SM-782A is here!
IPC-7351, Generic Requirements for Surface Mount Land Pattern and Design Standard
The successor to IPC-SM-782A is here! The document covers land pattern design for all types of passive and active components, including resistors, capacitors, MELFs, SSOPs, TSSOPs, QFPs, BGAs, QFNs and SONs. The standard provides many brand new features, including an intelligent land pattern naming convention, zero component rotations for CAD systems, and a set of three separate land pattern geometries for each component that allows the user to select a land pattern based on desired component density. Also includes updates to existing sections addressing land pattern guidelines for wave or reflow soldering, via location guidelines, fiducials and courtyard boundaries. IPC-7351 includes both the standard and a IPC-7351 land pattern viewer on CD-ROM. 92 pages.
March 2005 - Latest revisions for lead-free standards
IPC-A-610D Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies J-STD-001D Requirements for Soldered Electrical and Electronic Assemblies
Those in the electronic interconnect industry experiencing stress in planning for lead-free electronics manufacturing need not stress anymore. IPC has announced that Revision D of industry's most popular assembly standards, IPC-A-610 Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies and J-STD-001 Requirements for Soldered Electrical and Electronic Assemblies are now available and include lead-free requirements. "Much of the new lead-free information was received from the largest electronics manufacturing service companies in the world, including Jabil Circuit, Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Solectron Corporation and Flextronics International. These companies build millions of lead-free assemblies and shared their expertise with our standards development committees," says Jack Crawford, IPC director of certification and assembly technology.
Adds Tino Gonzalez, co-chair of the IPC-A-610 standard development committee, "Publishing these documents is a real credit to the active members of the committee as well as the volunteers and staff of IPC. These are very complex and very widely used documents, covering all aspects of acceptability. It's very important for the industry's ability to work through the lead-free transition, so we absolutely needed to set requirements straight. Companies who use the document should be very pleased with this latest version."
Though Crawford admits there were quite a few additions, clarifications and some formatting changes, relatively few changes from Revision C criteria make the transition to Revision D easier for both documents. Format changes include:
- Common elements of connection criteria (lead forming, placement and solder, etc.) are grouped together so users don't have to look in multiple chapters. - New chapters specific to through hole with subsections for supported and unsupported holes has been added. - Criteria are provided for intrusive soldering (pin and paste).
- Solder chapter now combines the solder anomalies previously detailed in multiple chapters.
- New chapter developed, combining component damage criteria previously covered in multiple chapters.
- Requirements common to the entire assembly such as conformal coating, marking, cleaning and conductor/land damage now addressed in a single chapter.
- Defect summary table moved to an appendix. Moving this table clarifies that users are to reference only requirements in each clause and not an abbreviated summary table. - Appendices to an IPC standard are not binding criteria unless separately and specifically required by the procurement documents.
Examples of content changes in both standards include: Addition or modification of pictures and illustrations for clarity or criteria changes and to criteria for lead-free; BGAs, solder balls, connection of wires/leads to terminals; plastic "no-lead" packages such as PQFN and components with bottom thermal plans terminations such as D-Paks™.
IPC-1066, Marking, Symbols and Labels for Identification of Lead-Free and Other Reportable Materials in Lead-Free Assemblies, Components and Devices
This standard establishes the requirements for a distinctive symbol and labels to be used to identify materials that are lead-free (Pb-free) and are capable of providing Pb-free second level interconnects, and for indicating certain types of Pb-free materials and the maximum allowable soldering temperature. It also establishes the requirements for labeling a bare board if the base resin is halogen free and the type of conformal coating used after assembly. 20 pages. This document may be purchased in hard copy or downloaded.
IPC-7095A - Design and Assembly Process Implementation for BGAs
Implementing Ball Grid Array (BGA) and Fine-Pitch Ball Grid Array (FBGA) technology presents some unique challenges for design, assembly, inspection and repair personnel. Revision A of this document delivers useful and practical information to anyone who is currently using BGAs or is considering a conversion to area array packaging formats. In addition to providing guidelines for BGA inspection and repair, IPC-7095A also addresses reliability issues and the use of lead-free joint criteria associated with BGAs. There are many new photographs of X-ray or endoscope illustrations to identify some of the chracteristics that the industry is experiencing in the implementation of BGA assembly processes. The effect of BGA and FBGA on current technology and component types is also discussed. 118 pages.
The definitive illustrated guide to printed circuit board acceptability!
This four-color document provides photographs and illustrations of the target, acceptable and nonconforming conditions that are either internally or externally observable on bare printed boards. Make sure your operators, inspectors, and engineers have the most current industry consensus information. With over 80 new or revised photographs and illustrations, revision G provides new coverage on topics such as smear removal, lifted lands and wire bond pads along with updated and expanded coverage for measling and crazing of printed boards, annular ring requirements, etchback, foil cracks, flexible circuits, and minimum foil thickness for conductive patterns. The document sychronizes to the acceptability requirements expressed in IPC-6012B and IPC-6013A. 140 pages.
IPC-6012B - Qualification and Performance Specification for Rigid Printed Boards
This specification covers qualification and performance of rigid printed boards, including single-sided, double-sided, with or without plated-through holes, multilayer with or without blind/buried vias and metal core boards. Addresses final finish and surface plating coating requirements, conductors, holes/vias, frequency of acceptance testing and quality conformance as well as electrical, mechanical and environmental requirements. Revision B incorporates many new requirements in areas such as surface finishes, hole size and pattern feature accuracy, annular ring and breakout conditions, surface mount defects for BGA and wire bond pads, minimum internal and external copper thickness and requirements for thermal stress testing. This revision synchronizes to the IPC-A-600G. For use with IPC-6011. Supersedes IPC-6012A with Amendment 1. 56 pages.
J-STD-020C, IPC/JEDEC Moisture / Reflow Sensitivity Classification for Nonhermatic Solid State Surface Mount Devices
Now updated for lead-free assembly and rework!
This standard identifies the classification level of nonhermetic solid state surface mount devices that are sensitive to moisture-induced stress. This standard now covers components to be processed at higher temperatures for lead-free assembly.
It is used to determine what classification level should be used for initial reliability qualification. These devices can be properly packaged, stored, and handled to avoid subsequent thermal/mechanical damage during solder reflow attachment and/or repair operation. Developed by IPC and JEDEC. 12 pages.
IPC-9702 - Monotonic Bend Characterisation of Board-Level Interconnnects
This publication is intended to characterise the fracture strength of a component's board level-interconnect by providing a common method of establishing the fracture resistance to flexural loading that may occur during conventional non-cyclic board assembly and test operations.
The document is applicable to surface mount components attached to printed wiring boards using conventional solder reflow technologies and supplements existing standards that address mechanical shock or impact during shipping, handling or field operation. 14 pages.
IPC-DVD-66C, The Seven Sins of Safety in Electronics Assembly with Training Certification
Are you required to train or retrain your operators in worker safety principles? Has your company been using the same film strip on safety since the 1950s? Then buy DVD-66C.
Suitable for OSHA and ISO training, it covers personal protection issues, improper use of tools, improper workstation design and set-up, hazardous materials, improper handling and positioning of materials, muscular-skeletal disorders and inadequate housekeeping.
Your operators and technicians will appreciate the engaging format and will be more receptive to information they must remember. Includes downloadable Leader's Guide, Learning Objectives, Review Questions and Final Exam.
Certificates of completion are also included for students who pass the Training Certification test. Contains optional English subtitles for the hearing-impaired and ESL students.
IPC-DVD-65C, Fibre Optics Assembly With Training Certification
Train and certify your operators in fiber optic cable assembly using DVD-65C. Chapter 1 provides a visual introduction to fiber optic cable, common connectors, tools and safety considerations.
Chapter 2 details typical fiber optic cable assembly procedures - including stripping the outer jacket and buffer, preparing and injecting epoxy into the connector, crimping the connector onto the cable and cleaving the cable.
Chapter 3 demonstrates connector polishing and industry acceptance criteria for the final product.
The DVD-65C training package also includes downloadable Leader's Guide, learning objectives, chapter review questions, transcript, training certification test and customisable certificates of completion for students with passing grades; with random-access menu selection and optional English subtitles for hearing-impaired and ESL students.
IPC-T-50G, Terms & Definitions for Interconnecting & Packaging Electronic Circuits
This essential industry standard provides descriptions and illustrations of electronics interconnect industry terminology to help users and their customers break down language barriers.
Revision G contains over 500 new or revised terms, including new terminology for ball grid array and chip scale packaging, via protection, lead-free solders, assembly processes, base materials and high speed/high frequency boards. Also includes commonly used industry acronyms and an index of terms by technology types for easy searching.
Revision A covers requirements for qualification and classification of rosin, resin, organic and inorganic fluxes according to the activity level and halide content of the fluxes.
It includes solder fluxes, flux-containing materials and low residue fluxes for no-clean processes. Associated test methods may have been updated and are available online for free download. Supersedes QQ-S-571 and MIL-F-14256.
IPC-CM-770E, Component Mounting Guidelines for Printed Boards
This revision provides effective guidelines in the preparation and attachment of components for printed circuit board assembly and reviews pertinent design criteria, impacts and issues. It contains techniques for assembly (both manual and machines including SMT, BGA and flip chip) and consideration of, and impact upon, subsequent soldering, cleaning, and coating processes.
IPC-7912A, End Item DPMO for Printed Circuit Board Assemblies
Finally - an end to the confusion when calculating defect opportunities for benchmarking! For customers and manufacturers, it seems like every company has a unique way of calculating defects and then reporting on quality. In a complex electronics assembly operation, is it best to calculate using the number of components? The number of leads? What about solder joints? How can companies calculate "best-in-class" with an infinite number of ways of calculating Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO)?
This is the first revision to the industry's first consensus document on calculating benchmark indices for defects and quality. The document provides consistent methodologies for calculating benchmark indices for DPMO Index, Component DPMO, Placement DPMO, Termination DPMO, and Overall Manufacturing Index (OMI). This document is for end-of-process benchmarking. Revision A now provides support for unpopulated terminations and has much clearer examples.
IPC-DVD-SMT-C, Surface Mount Solder Joint Workmanship Standards with Training Certification
Now you can train your operators and inspectors in the critical surface mount solder joint requirements from IPC-A-610C / J-STD-001C, using the latest DVD instructional technology. Group training takes advantage of the experience and expertise of your Class A instructor to interpret and assist students in applying industry criteria to company-specific needs. DVD-SMT-C can also be used as a stand-alone training program where students can select either Class 2 or 3 from the Main Menu, and study each requirement at their own pace.
Course contents include workmanship standards for Chip Components, J-Lead and Gull Wing solder joints as illustrated in the IPC-DRM-SMT-C, Surface Mount Solder Joint Evaluation Desk Reference Manual (copy included free with purchase). The DVD-SMT-C program also includes a written test, along with printable certificates for students with passing grades. While this program does not certify your company to the entire IPC-A-610C Specification, it does provide IPC Training Certification to the specific A-610 criteria contained in this media-based training program.
DVD-SMT-C also includes (optional) English subtitles for hearing-impaired and ESL students. This program is for unlimited students, making it an inexpensive and efficient method for training and verifying comprehension for ISO-9000 requirements.
IPC-DVD-PTH-C, Through-Hole Solder Joint Workmanship Standards with Training Certification
Now you can train and test your operators on the critical plated-through hole solder joint acceptance requirements from IPC A-610C and J-STD-001C. (Menu Selectable for both Class 2 and 3).
Section one covers PTH Solder joint terminology, industry specifications for solder joint acceptance standards, product classes and process indicators. Section two details min/max acceptable dimensional and visual requirements for component side; barrel; and solder side. Section three explains visual defect criteria for solder balls, projections, bridging, webbing, voids, cold/disturbed joints, exposed basis metal, fractures, lead protrusion and flux residues.
Written testing allows you to verify comprehension. Certificates for IPC Training Certification are included for students with passing grades. Course contents derived from DRM-40E, Through-Hole Solder Joint Evaluation Desk Reference Manual (copy included free with purchase). With (optional) English subtitles for hearing-impaired/ESL students, this DVD provides fast, effective and documented training/verification for ISO-9000 requirements.
IPC-DRM-18G Component Identification Training and Reference Guide
Assembly operators can now have a convenient component identification resource at their workstations - with the Component Identification Training and Reference Guide (formally known as 'Desk Reference Manual').
This comprehensive reference and training aid contains colour photographs, computer graphics, schematic symbols and full descriptions of more than 40 of the most commonly used through-hole and surface mount components, interconnections and hardware used in electronic assembly today.
Also included is a terminology section with quick facts on polarity, orientation, lead styles and Component Reference Designators (CRDs). The band reading section has full-colour, easy-to-use colour code charts and other component value data.
IPC has developed the IPC-9850 Standard to standardize the parameters, measurement procedures and methodologies used for the specification, evaluation, and continuing verification of surface mount placement equipment. It establishes the procedures to characterise and document the placement capability and performance of surface mount assembly equipment.
These test kits include all of the materials needed to perform the SMT placement equipment characterisation tests to IPC-9850. The CMM Measurement Verification Panel, placement verification panels and glass slugs include NIST certification documentation as required by the Standard. Glass slug components are available in either positive or negative image and with or without white background, depending on which is required for the vision systems on your equipment. There is an additional charge for components with white backgrounds.
IPC-9850-TM-K, Test Materials Kit for SMT Placement Equipment Standardisation - components negative image without white backgrounds
IPC-9850-TM-KW, Test Materials Kit for SMT Placement Equipment Standardisation - components negative image with white backgrounds
IPC-9850-TM-PK, Test Materials Kit for SMT Placement Equipment Standardisation - components positive image without white backgrounds
IPC-9850-TM-PKW, Test Materials Kit for SMT Placement Equipment Standardisation - components positive image with white backgrounds
For further details please contact our sale office here
July 2003 - New Standard
IPC-0040 Optoelectronic Assembly and Packaging Technology
This document addresses the implementation of optical and optoelectronic packaging technologies.
The areas discussed include: technology choices, design considerations, material properties, component mounting and interconnecting structures, assembly processes, testing, application, rework, and reliability of completed optoelectronic products.
Optoelectronic packaging technologies include active and passive components and discrete fiber cable, their characteristics, and the manner that these parts will become an integral part of the functioning module, board or subassembly.
IPC-2221A Generic Standard on Printed Board Design UPDATED!
IPC-2221A is the foundation design standard for all documents in the IPC-2220 series. It establishes the generic requirements for the design of printed boards and other forms of component mounting or interconnecting structures, whether single-sided, double-sided or multilayer.
Among the many updates to Revision A are new criteria for surface plating, internal and external foil thicknesses, component placement and hole tolerances. Expanded coverage is provided for material properties, dimensioning and tolerancing rules, and via structures
as well as updated coupon designs for quality assurance.
IPC-5701 Users Guide for Cleanliness of Unpopulated Printed Boards
Tackling PCB cleanliness is a tough job; residues on printed circuit boards are directly related to the reliability of the produced hardware and can result in serious failures if not known or monitored. But how do you measure "cleanliness"? How clean is "clean"?
The IPC-5701 provides guidance into how these issues should be approached and specified in purchasing documents, addressing levels of cleanliness, how to specify them, common locations for testing, and information on sample sizes.